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Preventing suicide among first responders
-- 防止初期應變人員自殺
文/曾郁青

The American Foundation for Suicide Prevention reports that suicide is the 10th leading cause of death in the U.S. The highest rate is among middle-aged white men. Suicide numbers among first responders are much worse.(美國自殺防救基金會指出,自殺是美國第10大死亡原因,中年男性白人的自殺率為最高,而初期應變人員中的自殺數量又更多。)

The Ruderman White Paper on Mental Health and Suicide of First Responder states that firefighters and law enforcement officers are more likely to die by suicide than from a line-of-duty death.(關於Ruderman在初期應變人員心理健康和自殺的白皮書指出,消防員和執法人員的自殺率高於因公死亡率。)

In 2017, there were 103 reported firefighter suicides and 93 line-of-duty deaths. The Firefighter Behavioral Health Alliance estimates approximately 40% of firefighter suicides are reported. If this estimate is correct, the actual number of suicides would be 257, more than twice the number of line-of-duty deaths.(在2017年,有103起消防員自殺事件及93起因公死亡事件。消防員行為健康聯盟指出估計約有40%的消防員自殺事件。如果這個估計是正確的,實際的自殺人數將是257人,是因公死亡人數的兩倍多。)

Job stress is likely the largest contributing factor. Suicide is the result of mental illness, like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Police and firefighters experience near constant exposure to death and destruction. PTSD and depression rates among firefighters and police officers are nearly five times higher than the civilian population. Even when suicide doesn't happen, untreated mental illness can lead to poor physical health and impaired decision-making.(工作壓力可能是最大的影響因素,而自殺是精神疾病的結果,如憂鬱症和創傷後壓力症候群。警察人員和消防人員經常接觸死亡及心理衝擊。消防人員和警察人員的創傷後壓力症候群和憂鬱症的機率幾乎是一般民眾的五倍。即使自殺沒有發生,未經治療的精神疾病也可能導致身體健康狀況不佳和影響決策。)

The stigma of mental illness within fire and police organizational culture can stop people from seeking help. Many national organizations have developed hotlines and programs to help people dealing with stress and depression. Your department can use these programs to build an internal support system for your members.(在消防和警察文化中會阻止他們尋求精神疾病上的協助。為了幫助他們面對壓力和憂鬱,許多國家組織已經發展熱線和計劃,您可以使用這些計畫為您的會員建造一個內部支持系統。)







註:本文相關內容來自https://www.usfa.fema.gov(本專欄內容可能與我國消防現況有所出入,僅供學習消防英文參考使用。)


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