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消防電子報資料庫首頁 :: 消防英文
 
Physical evidence(3)
-- 物證(3)
文/王慈慧

Usually, physical evidence requires laboratory examination and the testimony of an expert witness to establish its significance at a trial or proceeding. Fire investigators should be in contact during the scene examination with the forensic laboratory technician who will be evaluating the evidence to determine the quantity, packaging, storage, and transportation methods appropriate for the category of physical evidence.(一般而言,調查人員採集之跡證需要經過實驗室專家證人之鑑驗與測試,以確立其在法庭或審判上之意義。火災調查人員在勘察現場應該與刑事鑑識實驗室之鑑定人員聯繫,以評估合適的證物採集量、封緘方式、保存方法以及運送方式。)

Physical evidence is something that can be observed or physically handled by a judge or jury and differs from other forms of trial evidence such as direct evidence (testimony of witnesses who observe acts or detect something through their five senses and surveillance equipment such as CCTV), demonstrative evidence (photographs, maps, X-rays, visible tests, and demonstrations), or circumstantial evidence (facts that usually attend other facts to be proven and are drawn by logical inference from them).(實物證據是一項可供法官或陪審團觀察、手持檢視之證據,有別於其他形式之證據,像是直接證據【證人透過觀察、五官感知或監視錄影設備供述之證詞】、展示證據【如相片、地圖、X光機、視力測試、展示模型】,或是間接證據【通常意指其他已證明或經推理得出之事實為證】。)

Ideally, the fire scene, particularity the room of fire origin, should be left as intact and undisturbed as possible. Physical evidence can take many forms and can exist in a variety of locations in a fire or explosion scene examination. The decision of what physical evidence to collect rests with the fire investigator. It is important to understand that although the most important physical evidence in a fire investigation is generally found within the area of origin, important evidence can also be found elsewhere within the fire scene and frequently outside the fire scene.(在理想的情況下,尤其像是起火處在室內之火災現場,應盡可能地保持完整。物證在一個火災現場或爆炸現場中,可能以多種方式進行採集,並可能存在於多樣化之位置。應由火災調查人員決定採集何種證物。重要的是,要了解雖然在火調過程中最重要的物證通常都是在起火處被發現,重要的跡證也經常在火場內的其他位置被發現。)

The value of evidence preserved at the scene is often not known until the end of the investigation. It is for this reason that any materials thought to be debris or rubbish that are removed from a scene be contained and marked or labeled with the location of where it was found. For example, if a piece to an appliance is found to be missing, it could later be found in a labeled container containing debris from that specific location.(通常要到火災調查過程結束才會了解到證物保全之價值與重要性。因為這個原因,任何從火災現場取出被認為是殘跡或垃圾之物品,皆須完整的包裝及標記所發現的位置。舉例來說,假設一件物品遺失了,很有可能待會就在某個已標記特定位置的容器內找到。)

Skill in recognizing, documenting, collecting, and preserving physical evidence comes from specialized training and experience and is among the most important capabilities of any investigator. Experienced fire investigators understand the need to bring crime scene technicians or other evidence specialists onto the fire ground to deal with identification and recovery of physical evidence that may exceed the investigators own training or equipment capabilities.(證物辨識、記錄、採集、保全之能力源於專業的訓練及經驗的累積,是火災調查人員最重要的能力之一。有經驗的火災調查人員知道要會同犯罪偵查技術人員或其他證據專家至現場進行證物重建工作,因為這些有可能會超出火災調查人員訓練或設備的能力範圍。)


註:本文資料來源NFPA Principle and Practice to NFPA 921 and 1033


(106年11月10日 )
 
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