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Landslides & Debris Flow(1)
文/史明原

● Landslides occur in all U.S. states and territories and can be caused by a variety of factors including earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, fire and by human modification of land. Landslides can occur quickly, often with little notice and the best way to prepare is to stay informed about changes in and around your home that could signal that a landslide is likely to occur.(在美國各州及領土內所發生的崩塌,其成因有不同之因素,包括地震、颱風、火山爆發、火災或人為之土地修整。崩塌發生非常快速,常常沒有任何預警,最好的整備方式是隨時注意居家周遭環境是否有變化,這些變化可能就是崩塌發生前之警訊。)

● In a landslide, masses of rock, earth or debris move down a slope. Debris and mud flows are rivers of rock, earth, and other debris saturated with water. They develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground, during heavy rainfall or rapid snowmelt, changing the earth into a flowing river of mud or “slurry.” They can flow rapidly, striking with little or no warning at avalanche speeds. They also can travel several miles from their source, growing in size as they pick up trees, boulders, cars and other materials.(發生崩塌時,大量的石塊、沙土或瓦礫會往斜坡下移動。瓦礫及泥流即是由石塊、沙土或瓦礫混合水之後形成之河流。當發生豪雨或快速融雪時,大量的水在地面上堆積,將地面的沙土轉變為流動的泥流或泥漿,因而形成土石流。它們會在沒有預警的情形下,以崩塌般的速度快速的流動。它們同樣可以從發生地移動幾英哩,並因它們移動時會拾起樹木、礫石、車輛及其他物質因而不斷擴大其規模。)

● Landslide problems can be caused by land mismanagement, particularly in mountain, canyon and coastal regions. In areas burned by forest and brush fires, a lower threshold of precipitation may initiate landslides. Land-use zoning, professional inspections, and proper design can minimize many landslide, mudflow, and debris flow problems.(崩塌問題發生成因可能是土地管理不善,特別是山區、峽谷及海岸區域。在曾遭遇森林火災之地區,降雨量達到較低之門檻即會觸發崩塌。土地使用區劃、專業調查及適當設計都可以減少崩塌、泥流及瓦礫流之問題。)




註:本文相關內容來自https://www.ready.gov/
(本專欄內容可能與我國消防現況有所出入,僅供學習消防英文參考使用。)


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